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European Society of Endocrinology Clinical practice guidelines for the care of girls and women with Turner syndrome: proceedings from the 2016 Cincinnati International Turner Syndrome Meeting


Claus H Gravholt, Niels H Andersen, Gerard S Conway, Olaf M Dekkers, Mitchell E Geffner, Karen O Klein, Angela E Lin, Nelly Mauras, Charmian A Quigley, Karen Rubin, David E Sandberg, Theo C J Sas, Michael Silberbach, Viveca Söderström-Anttila, Kirstine Stochholm, Janielle A van Alfen-van derVelden, Joachim Woelfle, Philippe F Backeljauw, on behalf of the International Turner Syndrome Consensus Group

Developed By:

The European Society of Endocrinology in collaboration with the Pediatric Endocrine Society, the Society for Endocrinology, the European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology, the Endocrine Society, the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology, the American Heart Association, and the European Society of Cardiology.


Turner syndrome affects 25–50 per 100,000 females and can involve multiple organs through all stages of life, necessitating multidisciplinary approach to care. Previous guidelines have highlighted this, but numerous important advances have been noted recently. These advances cover all specialty fields involved in the care of girls and women with TS.
This guideline document was developed for health care providers of patients with TS, i.e., both primary-care providers (pediatricians, family doctors, internal medicine specialists), as well as specialists, such as specialist pediatricians, geneticists, endocrinologists, cardiologists, fertility doctors and specialists in internal medicine. The overall purpose of the guidelines is to provide a practical clinical guideline, with focus on operational recommendations for daily management.